عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking after only the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors of England (including Wales) and Scotland. The Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. Formerly he was also the presiding officer of the House of Lords, and the head of the judiciary in England and Wales, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker and the Lord Chief Justice respectively. The current Lord Chancellor is Chris Grayling, who is also Secretary of State for Justice. In England the Lord Chancellor has Extensive powers and Competencies In realms of legislative, executive, judicial powers and also he has Ecclesiastical functions. But In the early 21st Influenced by idea of the separation of powers as put forward by Montesquieu and by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, was limited these Extensive powers and Competencies. however, In Islam, at first the judgment was one of the Sovereign authority and the Prophet (P) his self has judged, But After decades the expand of the scope of Islamic government and Inability sovereign to do all things, caused to Independence of the judiciary power from the executive power. And the office of the Chief Justice was founded by Abbasid and granted to him judicial and non-judicial special powers. And also he enjoyed of the Office. After the Islamic Revolution, also With respect to its special circumstances such as Ijtihad and his independence from other powers and also having special powers, his status was added.