عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Since the seventeenth century, abbreviations such as FVOB, CI.A.F or CIAF were commonly used in maritime transport. Traders and transport operators used these abbreviations to determine the amount of their obligations and determine the time to transfer the massive risks to the customer. Vendors did not want to cover the dangers of the goods in the buyer's land, and the buyers also did not want to accept the risks of the goods in the seller's land. For this reason, the use of trade marks FOB C & F and CIF, according to which the transfer of the defective goods at the time of the goods passing the goods from the ship's rails was transferred from the seller to the buyer, became very common. The risks to the goods were borne by the buyer during the shipment and, if it was determined that these hazards would be abandoned, use the terms EX-SHIP and EX-QUAU (Ramberg, Jan, Incoterms 1980). Some countries, in order to establish unity within the realm of their sovereignty, began to draw up these abbreviations and interpret them and, by law, determined their provisions. As an example, the Foreign Trade Foreign Exchange Act of 1941, has been interpreting these abbreviations.